Autism and Brain Zaps

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Leading on from my previous post about autism and anxiety, this week I’d like to talk about the phenomenon of brain zaps which autists may experience.

So what exactly are brain zaps?

Brain zaps (also know as brain shakes/shocks/shivers/flips) are a poorly understood phenomenon where it feels as though the brain is undergoing an electrical shock or a shaking/shivering/vibrating sensation. I personally have experienced these from time to time as a vibrating sensation in my brain, where it feels like your brain is literally shaking in your skull. Others report that it feels like a zap has gone off in their head and they can hear a hissing or a ringing sound in their ears. In some cases people experience bursts of light and can feel faint and disorientated afterwards. They are not harmful to the brain but they can be distracting and uncomfortable, especially for autists who are already sensitive to sensory stimuli.

So what causes them?

Like many neurological sensations, they are somewhat of a mystery, but they generally tend to occur in response to withdrawal or missed doses of certain drugs such as anti-depressants, ecstasy and MDMA, and medications for anxiety and ADHD – many of which are prescribed for co-morbid mental health conditions in autists. As these drugs alter levels of key calming inhibitory neurotransmitters such as serotonin and GABA (levels which are naturally dysregulated in the autistic brain), it is thought that low levels of these neurotransmitters may cause over-excitement in the brain, leading to abnormal firing between the neurons causing localized minor seizures i.e. brain zaps.

Don’t be alarmed by the term seizure here- this theory has not yet been confirmed and there is no evidence that brain zaps have a negative impact on our health.

On the other hand, brain zaps can also occur in response to high stress and anxiety. When you experience chronic stress, the brain is hyperstimulated as your worries swirl round and around in your restless mind. Completely overworked and overexcited from stress, your neurotransmitter levels fluctuate causing lower levels of calming GABA and higher levels of glutamate- the primary excitatory neurotransmitter. Such changes may over-excite the brain resulting in a localised seizure/brain zap as described above. Autists may be particularly susceptible to brain zaps in this manner as we experience higher levels of biological stress than our neurotypical peers, not to mention that our neurons are naturally hyper-connected, our neurotransmitters dysregulated and our brains hyperstimulated as a result.

Interestingly, a recent study has suggested that lateral eye movement may be a triggering factor for brain zaps. This is particularly intriguing for autists as evidence suggests that we process most visual information in our periphery, so our natural inclination to avoid direct eye contact could trigger brain zaps.

There are no treatments for brain zaps, but while they may not be the most pleasant sensation, they are generally nothing to be worried about and can be mitigated with proper management of stress and your prescribed medications.

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Have a lovely weekend!

Aoife

Autism and Cholesterol

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Following on from my recent post about diet and autism, this week I’d like to discuss a biomolecule that is not often talked about in the literature about autism- cholesterol.

When it comes to cholesterol, we usually think of it as a bad thing- that fatty yellow stuff that clogs up our arteries when we eat too much of the wrong foods. But there is so much more to cholesterol than most people realize. Cholesterol is an essential biomolecule involved in the synthesis of numerous other bodily substances such as steroid hormones, vitamin D and bile. It’s also an essential component of our cell membranes.

There are 2 types of cholesterol- LDL and HDL. LDL (low-density lipoprotein) makes up most of the cholesterol in the body. This is often referred to as the bad type of cholesterol as a build up of this can clog the arteries. HDL (high-density lipoprotein) on the other hand, is considered the good kind of cholesterol as it absorbs waste cholesterol and shuttles it to the liver for removal from the body.

So what has cholesterol got to do with autism?

Here’s where things get interesting. Cholesterol is involved in modulating the oxytocin receptor and the serotonin 1-A receptor- neurotransmitters that are dysregulated in the autistic brain which contribute to a number of autistic symptoms. Multiple studies have reported that some autists have hypocholesterolemia (i.e low cholesterol levels). Cholesterol deficits could interfere with the functioning of the oxytocin and serotonin receptors and contribute to autistic symptoms. Recent research has identified mutations in a cluster of genes involved in cholesterol metabolism in certain forms of autism which likely causes these lowered cholesterol levels. Cholesterol and omega fish oil supplementation may be useful to help counter the impact of low cholesterol on the brain.

Cholesterol Fat The Structural - Free image on Pixabay

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Have a lovely weekend!

Aoife

Autism and MDMA/Ecstasy

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Leading on from my previous post about autism and CBD, this week I’d like to explore another drug that is being researched in the treatment of autism- MDMA, the active ingredient in Ecstasy.

Yes, you’ve heard me correctly, the psychoactive drug MDMA is indeed being explored as a treatment option for autists!

So how can a recreational party drug help people with autism?

First synthesized for use in psychotherapy by Merck in the 1910’s, MDMA is the active ingredient in the street drug ecstasy and is thought to improve anxiety, sensory perception and sociability in those who take it. Many autists who have taken the drug recreationally have reported feeling more at ease in their body and increased empathy.

So how does the drug work?

MDMA increases release of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine in the brain- neurotransmitters that are dysregulated in the autistic brain. In addition, MDMA is also thought to boost the hormones oxytocin and vasopressin the body which are also implicated in autistic symptoms. These hormones and neurotransmitters are heavily involved in anxiety and social behaviours, so targeting these makes pharmacological sense for autists.

That’s fine in theory, but does it work?

A pilot study (a small scale preliminary study) was conducted in 2016 to compare the impact of MDMA assisted psychotherapy on anxiety levels in autists versus psychotherapy alone. The study found that social anxiety significantly reduced in the group that received MDMA, a positive change that occurred rapidly and show signs of long term duration. This was however only a small pilot study and studies are ongoing with larger cohorts.

The drug does not currently have any legally approved medical uses, but if these clinical trials prove successful, this may change in the coming years.

In case you’re getting worried, the street drug itself is not being explored- ecstasy does not contain enough MDMA for therapeutic benefit, and it is often combined with other substances such as methamphetamine which make long-term use highly addictive and damaging to overall health. However, long-term use of MDMA does hold similar safety caveats such as sleep disturbances, depression, heart disease, decreased cognitive functioning and concentration so further research is required.

Nearly half of people who regularly consume ecstasy have tested their drugs

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ˜€

Have a lovely weekend!

Aoife

Autism and Epilepsy

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Following on from last weeks post about CBD/medical marijuana and autism, this week I’d like to take a closer look at epilepsy, a neurological condition that is often co-morbid with autism. In fact, some reports suggest that as many as half of people with autism also suffer with some form of epilepsy! 😲

So what exactly is epilepsy?

Epilepsy is a neurological condition caused by abnormal electrical activity along the neurons in the cortex of the brain. In the brain, neurons are usually activated in order along the nerve as messages travel from one point to another- in other words, only one nerve cell at a time is activated. Think of nerve cells like a chain of people passing a note along- only one person will hold the note at a given time. During an epileptic seizure however, the nerves fire excessively and abnormally all at the same time. The exact mechanism is unclear, but evidence suggests that changes in the membrane of nerve cells or dysfunction in inhibitory brain cells may cause symptoms.

Here’s a handy video from ‘The Doctors‘ that talks through some of the common types of seizures:

But how is it linked with autism?

Researchers are unclear as of yet if epilepsy is a consequence of autism or a contributory factor in developing it, however, both autism and epilepsy share common genetic roots. Some studies have found that there is a lot of overlap between the genes implicated in both conditions, where mutations in these genes (such as SCN2A and HNRNPU genes) give rise to symptoms.

The main theory behind their overlap is that they stem from similar biological mechanisms wherein both conditions are caused by alterations and imbalances in excitation and inhibition of nerve activity in the brain.

If you want to do some more reading about how epilepsy manifests in autism and how to manage it, here’s a useful link: https://www.epilepsy.ie/content/epilepsy-and-autism

873 Epilepsy Illustrations, Royalty-Free Vector Graphics & Clip Art - iStock

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings!

Have a lovely weekend,

Aoife

Autism and Echopraxia

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Leading on from my previous post on echolalia, this week I’d like to briefly discuss the phenomenon echopraxia.

Image result for what the gif

Yes I know, it’s another mouthful, but what exactly is echopraxia?

Echopraxia (also known as echomotism or echokinesis) is a type of tic disorder characterized by involuntary imitation of another persons actions e.g. waving a hand, touching your nose, kicking something, even facial expressions. Echopraxia is one of the core features of Tourette’s syndrome, however it has also been found to occur in ASD’s. It is often paired with echolalia, but it has been known to occur independently in autists.

I know what you’re thinking- imitation of actions is critical to early development in childhood and perfectly “normal” behaviour, so it seems like echopraxia might be reading into things too much. However, when this behaviour persists and becomes reactionary rather than a learning tool, then it can be viewed from a pathophysiological  perspective. As such, it can be very difficult to diagnose this behaviour in children. 

So what does the science have to say about echopraxia and autism?

There’s very limited research in this area, however experts believe that echopraxia is related to damage or dysfunction within the frontal lobe known as the action cortex of the brain- an area that is often implicated in autistic behaviours. Other’s have theorized that abnormalities in the mirror neurons located here may be responsible.

Nope, I’m afraid mirror neurons are not quite this exiting- mirror neurons are in fact a particular type of nerve cell that fires when a person or an animal acts and witnesses another person complete the same action. This type of behaviour has been particularly observed in primates, giving new meaning to the phrase ‘monkey see, monkey do’.

echopraxia

In general, echopraxia is considered harmless, however if it starts to interfere with social functioning, then behavioural modifications, medications and psychotherapy are possible treatment options πŸ™‚

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ˜€

Have a lovely weekend!

Aoife

 

Autism and Gait

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ˜€

This week I’d like to discuss another lesser known aspect of the spectrum- autism and gait.

As I’ve discussed previously, coordination issues are part and parcel with autism, however, what you may not know is that these coordination issues tie in with an autists gait- particularly for those with Asperger’s syndrome. In fact one of the lesser known diagnostic criteria in the DSM-V is that of an odd or unusual gait.

New technologies are even using gait analysis as an early means of detecting autism:

I know it seems an unusual trait, (let’s face it, we rarely notice a person’s walk) but researchers have observed that autists can have greater or even reduced step and stride length, increased step width, have unusual posturing, tend to walk on their toes, and are lacking in “motor smoothness” when compared with their neurotypical peers.

So why is an autists gait so unusual? What does the science have to say?

Thus far only a few studies have investigated the underpinnings of gait and autism (although the association has been known for decades), but as usual, the evidence points back to the brain. There has been a lot of debate as to which region is responsible for gait differences, however there is evidence to suggest that neurological alterations in the cerebellum (regulates motor movement) and the basal ganglia (a group of nerves involved in voluntary control of motor movements) in autists are the likely culprits.

Furthermore, those autists who tend to toe walk can develop a leg length discrepancy which can also contribute to their odd gait. Gait issues such as this can have a negative impact on the body as this can shorten your Achilles tendon.Β  Research shows that children with ASD’s tend to have a reduced range of motion in the knee and ankle when walking which may imply weakness around these joints.

It’s not all bad news however, as special orthotics can be used to help improve some of these issues.

bitmoji-20190521095540.png

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Have a lovely weekend!

Aoife

Autism and Alexithymia

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Today I’d like to briefly elaborate on something that I’ve touched on in previous posts– autism and alexithymia.

So what exactly is alexithymia?

alexithymia

Alexithymia is a personality trait wherein an autist may struggle to identify and describe emotions in themselves and in others. We feel emotions just like everyone else, we just aren’t always aware of what it is we are feeling. It can be incredibly frustrating (ironically I’ve often struggled to identify this emotion in the past πŸ˜› ) knowing that you feel something but not having a clue how to verbalize it or process it properly. I’ve honestly spent days going “The thing is…it’s just…um..I dunno!” round and round my mind until I can figure out what it is I’m feeling!

heartclutch

Thankfully as I’ve gotten older this happens less and less frequently.

Aoife’s Top Tip: as I’ve discussed previously, music can be quite beneficial when dealing with alexithymia. If I can’t identify an emotion, I tend to gravitate towards songs that sound like what I’m feeling or a particular lyric that resonates with my experience which can help get you past a rough patch πŸ™‚

As many as 85% of autists may have varying degrees of alexithymia, but is there a scientific explanation for it?

bitmoji-20190319080914

The science remains unclear, however some neurological studies may provide us with some clues.

Early studies proposed that there is a breakdown in communication along the corpus callosum between the emotional right and the logical left hemispheres of the brain when emotional information is transferred to the language regions of the brain. In one third of autists, the corpus callosum (a thick bundle of nerves which connect the hemispheres) is either partially or completely missing which could explain the struggles to identify emotions. Another study suggests that dysfunction in the anterior cingulate cortex of the brain may contribute to alexithymia, an area of the brain associated with empathy that appears to be weakly activated in social situations in autists.

So try not to judge us too harshly when we struggle to show empathy πŸ™‚

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings!

Enjoy the weekend! πŸ™‚

Aoife

Autism and Mental Health

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Did you know– autistic children have higher levels of depressive symptoms and are 28 times more likely to have thoughts of suicide than their neurotypical counterparts? 😲

bitmoji1256098968In recent years our awareness of and willingness to tackle mental health issues has increased significantly, however, the autistic community is often forgotten in our discussions.

Mental health issues such as OCD, anxiety, depression, eating disorders, ADD, psychosis, personality disorders and bipolar disorder are frequently co-morbid with ASD diagnoses, but aside from OCD and anxiety, you will rarely hear about these other issues in relation to autism. In fact, such mental health issues can even obscure ASD diagnoses in higher functioning autists as clinicians often diagnose the co-morbid condition without seeing the underlying ASD.

This is a particularly big issue for women on the spectrum as experts have found that we tend to exhibit greater depressive symptoms and higher anxiety levels than our male counterparts as we tend to internalize and ‘mask‘ our struggles. Moreover due to differences between male and female presentation of ASD’s and male bias in the development of the diagnostic criteria, women with autism are often misdiagnosed as having mental health issues, but the root ASD continues to evade.

bitmoji-20190226102522

But are there any scientific reasons why mental health issues are so prevalent among autists?

A recently published study has suggested that perhaps the gut may influence an autists mental health. As gastrointestinal issues are often co-morbid with an ASD diagnosis, and as the microbes that live in the gut can have an influence on the brain and behaviours, it has been proposed that perhaps a “dysbiosis” or imbalance in gut microbes may have an influence on an autists mental health 😲

Interestingly studies have also identified an overlap between the genes that cause schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism wherein certain points on these genes encode proteins that are involved in the formation and strength ofΒ synapses (which act as chemical bridges between neurons) suggesting that these disorders may act through a similar neurological pathway. Moreover, dysregulation of neurotransmitters (biochemical messengers in the brain) has also been implicated in depression, anxiety, bipolar disorder, ADHD and autism (as we have discussed in multiple previous posts) indicating further neurological overlaps.

In short, it seems that the biological basis of both autism and mental health issues are intertwined, which could explain why so often the two walk hand in hand.

bitmoji-20190226101111

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Until next time!

Aoife

 

 

Autism- Atypical Language Use

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

This week I’d just like to briefly talk about the use of atypical or unusual language in autism.

bitmoji-20190214094617

Now you may have noticed in previous blogs that I don’t always use the most simplistic of language to express myself- I have always been fond of big words, and have a tendency to regurgitate these randomly in casual conversation.

One infamous incident was the time that I told my Maths teacher that I intended to drop to ordinary level Maths after I had been “ruminating” on it for the previous few days- my family have never let that one go! πŸ˜› πŸ˜‚Β Similarly, my supervisor nearly shot me for including the word “multitudinous” in my first publication! Needless to say it was pulled during edits πŸ˜›

ruminate

I was most interested to learn after my diagnosis that my verbosity (couldn’t help myself choosing this word! πŸ˜‚)Β Β is not uncommon among autists, particularly among those with Asperger’s syndrome. In fact the tendency to use more formalized language was first observed during Kanner’s original observations of autism back in the 1940’s and is included on the common list of diagnostic criteria.

So is there a scientific explanation as to why many autists tend towards atypical language?

Studies of individuals with damage to the right hemisphere of the brain have been known to have a proclivity for verbose language. Moreover, brain imaging studies of autists have shown that there is a tendency towards “rightward asymmetry” (a tendency for certain brain functions to be more specialized in the right side of the brain) in language areas versus their neurotypical peers. Taken together, alterations to the right hemisphere of the brain may explain why some autists prefer a more formalized use of language when communicating.

Alternatively you could just enjoy using big words as I do- like I always say, why use a smaller word when there are so many glorious synonyms floating around in the back of my brain!Β  πŸ˜› πŸ˜‰

bitmoji-20190214094545

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings! πŸ™‚

Until next time!

Aoife

Autism and Catatonia

Greetings Earthlings! πŸ™‚

So this week I’d like to talk about a rare condition that affects approximately 12-18% of autistic adults- autistic catatonia.

But what exactly is this when it’s at home?

Image result for hmm gif

Autistic catatonia is a neuropsychiatric condition that causes abnormalities in behaviours, speech and motor functions with varying degrees of severity. In other words, it’s a form of autistic breakdown- one that is often misdiagnosed.

There are over 40 symptoms associated with the condition, many of which overlap with autistic symptoms and traits, so it can be quite challenging to diagnose- even for the most experienced professionals in the field. Symptoms may include mutism, hyperactivity, immobility, stupor, agitation, odd repetitive movements and echolalia.Β Due to the overlap in symptoms, it’s thought that this condition may be far more prevalent among autists than we realize.

catatonia.png

But what causes it?

As with autism, it’s cause too remains a mystery, however it is thought that vitamin deficiencies, trauma, infection and co-morbid disorders such as schizophrenia and biopolar disorder may contribute to it.

So how do we treat it?

There are currently no cures for autistic catatonia, however a number of therapies have been used to manage symptoms such as antidepressants, muscle relaxers, benzodiazapines (such as Lorazepam) and anti psychotics. Electroconvulsive therapy (shock therapy), brain stimulation and NMDA receptor antagonists (a class of anesthetic drugs that are often used recreationally e.g ketamine, nitrous oxide, PCP and the heroin substitute methadone) have also been controversially used to treat catatonia.

There is limited research in this area at present as to how best to treat autistic catatonia, however a psychological approach to treat underlying stress and anxieties which may trigger catatonia is thought to be the best.

Whilst there is no cure, as in the case of autism, with early detection and intervention the condition can be managed πŸ™‚

bitmoji1327220945

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings and that you’re Christmas preparations are coming along nicely πŸ™‚

Aoife

 

Blog at WordPress.com.

Up ↑