Autism and Dyscalculia

Greetings Earthlings! 🙂

Leading on from my previous post on dyslexia, this week I’d like to discuss another lesser known learning disability that can be co-morbid with autism- dyscalculia.

So what exactly is dyscalculia?

Dyscalculia is a specific type of learning disability characterized by a difficulty with numbers and arithmetic i.e, understanding how to do maths and manipulate numbers (that’s right- not all autists are good with numbers Hollywood 😛 ) . There are varying levels of dyscalculia but signs may include difficulties with numbers and mathematical symbols, pattern recognition, sequence issues, handling money, managing and telling time, visual processing, and memory issues.

So what causes dyscalculia?

Again as with most aspects of the spectrum, the exact mechanism is unclear. Thought to be related to ADHD, dyslexia and dyspraxia, dyscalculia seems to result from dysfunction in the intraparietal sulcus (an area thought to be involved in processing symbolic and numerical information) and the frontal lobe of the brain. The frontal lobe in particular contains most of the dopamine neurons of the brain which are involved in attention, planning and short term memory- all of which are important functions in comprehending numbers. As discussed in many previous posts, dopamine levels are dysregulated in the autistic brain which could explain why autists may be more prone to these types of learning disabilities.

Is there anything that can be done to help manage it?

As with most disabilities, early detection and intervention are key to helping those with dyscalculia cope with their struggles. There have been very few targeted programs specific to dyscalculia but in recent years a number of digital programs have been created to help improve basic numerical abilities. The gold standard one to one tutoring is also a useful option to help improve these skills through repetition and targeting areas of particular difficulty. Interestingly, there was a study conducted in 2014 where electrical stimulation of the left side of the posterior parietal lobe of the brain (an area involved in spatial reasoning and planned movements) improved numerical abilities in patients. As many as 43% of autists may have abnormalities in their parietal lobe, so further research into this region could provide us with new ways to manage dyscalculia in the future.

Hope you enjoyed this post dear Earthlings!

Have a lovely weekend! 🙂

Aoife

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